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DMDS Evolution® E2 for hydrodesulfurization catalyst sulfiding

Discover the Product range DMDS sulfiding & anti-coking solution.
Product overview

Arkema is the only company to manufacture DMDS Evolution® E2 (Dimethyl Disulfide), the most performant sulfiding agent, and provide direct turn-key catalyst sulfiding services worldwide with Carelflex®.
DMDS Evolution® E2 is the most effective sulfiding agent to be used for insitu hydrotreating catalyst activation during startup of the unit. Hydrotreating catalyst (HDT) must be converted to the “Sulfide” forms to get the desired activity. DMDS Evolution® E2 is easy to pump, fully soluble in any hydrocarbon and has a high sulphur content to minimize delivered quantity and be cost effective.

Geographic availability
  • Worldwide

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Reach the highest hydrotreating catalyst activity

How does the sulfiding process with DMDS Evolution® E2 impact the lifespan and effectiveness of catalysts in industrial processes?

DMDS Evolution® E2 provides a complete sulfiding of the metals, resulting in a high concentration of active sulfur species that can facilitate the desired chemical reactions. In addition, the use of DMDS Evolution® E2 for sulfiding can reduce the amount of coke and other undesirable by-products that can accumulate on the catalyst surface, and reduce the catalyst activity.
Overall, the use of DMDS Evolution® E2 can improve the performance and efficiency of industrial processes that rely on catalysts, while also reducing maintenance, temperature increase and replacement costs associated with catalyst deactivation.

Arkema was the first company to introduce the “Efficient Sulfur” concept, in which all the sulfur present in the sulfiding agent DMDS (68 % sulfur) is efficiently converted to H2S on the hydrotreating catalyst under standard sulfiding conditions. Indeed, coking phenomena can interfere with the catalyst activation as it creates a physical barrier to actives sites and reduces catalyst activity. The choice of the sulfiding agent structure plays a key role to the catalyst life cycle.

As a result, DMDS Evolution® E2 (Dimethyl Disulfide) has become the most widely used catalyst sulfiding chemical globally for hydrodesulfurization catalyst in-situ sulfiding.

In parallel, Arkema offers its expertise with Carelflex® service which includes top quality equipment and dedicated and flexible teams to handle and inject DMDS (Dimethyl Disulfide). Carelflex® provides refineries with the benefits of an optimal on time sulfiding with DMDS Evolution® E2.

The properties of DMDS Evolution® E2

  • Liquid over a wide range of temperature: DMDS (Dimethyl Disulfide) remains liquid in a large range of temperature (from -85 °C to 109 °C), which makes it easy to handle, transfer and inject. 
  • The highest sulfur content on the market: With a sulfur content of 68 %,  DMDS Evolution® E2 is the standard sulfur carrier available to reduce coking in you steamcrackers and for catalysts sulfiding. 
  • Outstanding performance with superior scent: DMDS Evolution® E2 is a breakthrough formulation for outstanding odor control and safe handling operations. It provides a pleasant fragrance. 
  • High solubility: DMDS evolution® E2 shows the best solubility in hydrocarbons for a perfect reaction on all hydrogenation catalysts.  
  • Perfect vaporization profile: With a boiling point of 109 °C, DMDS Evolution® E2 ensures an homogenous distribution in all steamcrakers tubes.

The benefits of using DMDS Evolution® E2 solution for catalyst sulfiding

What are the benefits of using DMDS Evolution® E2 for sulfiding catalysts compared to other sulfiding agents?

  • DMDS Evolution® E2 is a breakthrough formulation for a better smelling DMDS sulfiding agent. This is the ultimate solution to improve working condition with better odor control and pleasant fragrance during sulfidings operations.
  • More effective: DMDS Evolution® E2 has been shown to be more effective than other sulfiding agents at achieving high levels of sulfur loading on catalysts.
  • Easier to handle: DMDS Evolution® E2 is liquid at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, making it easier to handle during injection than other sulfiding agents that may be in solid or gas form. It offers more fluid injection over a wide range of process temperature.
  • Maximizes hydrotreatment catalyst activity thanks to ideal decomposition profile into H2S at low temperature. DMDS shows the highest catalyst activation levels and improves hydrotreatment units' profitability.

  • Reduces operation logistics, minimize costs and provides better sulfiding operation control with less sulfiding agent to be ordered and handled at the refinery.
  • Higher purity: DMDS Evolution® E2 is a high purity grade, which can help to minimize impurities in the catalysts.
  • Reduced environmental impact: DMDS Evolution® E2 has a lower impact on the environment than some other sulfiding agents, as it does not contain halogens or heavy metals.
  • Approved by all catalyst manufacturers and technology licensors. With more than 400 sulfiding operations per year, DMDS Evolution® E2 references are available for any unit type and technology.

Which sulfiding agent to choose for hydrotreatmant units’ activation?

The choice of the sulfiding agent is the primary step, to optimize the sulfiding process. For hydrotreatment catalysts activation, when comparing two different sulfur compounds  available on the market DMDS is well headed, in terms of benefits: it is the sulfiding agent with the highest sulfur content that provides the highest activity.


What is the mechanism of sulfiding with DMDS, and how does it prevent catalyst deactivation?

The mechanism of sulfiding with DMDS involves the conversion of metals oxide on the catalyst surface to its corresponding metals sulfide. This is achieved through the reaction between H2S resulting from the decomposition of DMDS and the metals under temperature and pressure conditions.
In sulfiding conditions DMDS full decomposition forms hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4). The H2S reacts with the metal on the catalyst to form metal sulfide and the by-products of the decomposition (sulfur intermediaries and methane) do not cause premature coking, compared to other sulfiding agents. DMDS is an effective sulfiding agent due to its ability to generate H2S at low temperatures, and its high sulfur content compared to other sulfiding agents.  

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